Notes on the Ringer's solutions listed in Table 4 are subdivided as follows:

Annelids,   Crustaceans,   Xiphosurans,   Molluscs,   Echinoderms,   Other Invertebrates,   Elasmobranchs,   Teleosts,   Amphibians,   Mammals 

NOTES, Annelids (source = A1 if not otherwise stated)


N-MAn1 (Wells..):

N-MAn2 (Goldman..): This recipe is actually described by the authors as an artificial seawater.


N-OCr1 (Van Harreveld):

N-OCr2 (Skinner..): Final buffer is Tris-maleate; final osmolarity is given as 850mosm/kg water.

NOTES, Crustaceans (source = A1 if not otherwise stated)


N-MCr1 (Pantin): Recipe based on the composition of Carcinus maenas "blood" given by Bethe, 1929 [C-MCr1x]

N-MCr1-a (Mercier..): Recipe based on that of Roberts and Bush [C-MCr1-ax].

N-MCr2 (Cole): Recipe from [A1]; based on perfusion solution no. 2 of Cole [C-MCr2] . This recipe has been used to dissect and maintain shrimp digestive glands [C-MCr2-x].

N-MCr4 (Mulloney..): Contributor C. Derby notes that (a) this recipe has been used for both P. interruptus (the California spiny lobster) and P. argus (the Caribbean spiny lobster); (b) the CaCl2 should be dissolved separately and added last (just before pH adjustment) to avoid possible precipitation; (c) later workers have modified this recipe by replacing TES with HEPES [e.g., C-MCr4-x].


N-OCr1 (Van Harreveld): The author also used this Ringer's solution for studies of the crayfish Astacus trowbridgii.

N-OCr2 (Skinner..): Final buffer is Tris-maleate; final osmolarity is given as 850mosm/kg water.

NOTES, Xiphosurans (source = A1 if not otherwise stated)

N-Xi1 (Levin..): used in studies of Limulus amebocytes (blood cells); precautions must be taken to destroy any endotoxins present, or cells may degranulate. See source, [C-Xi1].

NOTES, Molluscs (source = A1 if not otherwise stated)


N-MMo1 (Singh):

N-MMo2 (Tucker):

N-MMo3 (Hodgkin..): The original paper (C-MMo3) describes this medium as an artificial seawater; values are calculated from C-MMo3-x.


N-OMo1 (Bernard):

N-OMo2 (Kuziemski): The author's "B-solution"; a formulation reported to sustain the cardiac rhythmic of this freshwater mussel species, whereas previous recipes produced arrhythmia in freshwater mussels.

NOTES, Echinoderms

N-Ec1 (Lawrence..): Glucose (to 0.556 micromolar) was also added in some cases. As noted in [A10], this paper is an exception; most researchers have employed sea waters as an approximate equivalent to echinoderm perivisceral fluids.

NOTES, Other Invertebrates

N-OIn1 (Murray): As noted in [A10], such a planarian recipe is empirical because of the difficulty in analyzing the native internal fluid composition.

NOTES, Elasmobranchs (source = A1 if not otherwise stated)

N-El 1 (Babkin..): The study included another skate, Raja stabuliformis. This recipe has also been used in the preparation of smooth dogfish erythrocytes [C-El 1x]

N-El 2(Cavanaugh): This recipe is given in [A1] as "Skate-Raja"; original source not yet determined.

N-El 3 (Hartman..): Note in A1 says "Recommended by L. Prosser. Buffer with NaHCO3 and aerate well".

N-El 3-a (Kriebel...): A HEPES-buffered Ringer's used for maintenance of skate electric organs [C-El 3-a]

N-El 5 (Forster...): Authors note fairly close correspondence to Squalus plasma except that protein and trimethylamine oxide are absent. NaHCO3 was either added dry after bringing volume to 1 liter, or was completely dissolved before adding CaCl2, to avoid calcium carbonate precipitation.[C-El 5]

NOTES, Teleosts (source = A1 if not otherwise stated)


N-MTe1 (Young): Recipe as it appears in [A1]; however, p. 428 of the original paper [C-MTe1] gives (mM) NaCl 230.00, KCl 8.00, CaCl2 2.25, MgCl2 3.65 as isotonic for Bay of Naples teleosts, in basic agreement with Ref. [A10]. NaHCO3 is omitted in the original, which states that it (or phosphate buffers) can be added. The slightly lower NaCl conc. in A1 is presumably an osmotic adjustment for local (Woods Hole) conditions.
N-MTe2 (Burton): Substitution of TRIS for bicarbonate buffer modified melanophore response to noradrenalin [C-MTe2]

N-MTe2-a (Forster..):


N-FTe1 (Fluck): A "balanced salt solution" used for Medaka gonads, gametes, and zygotes [C-FTe1]

N-FTe2 (Takahashi): Many other buffer variations are given [C-FTe2]

NOTES, Amphibians (source = A1 if not otherwise stated)

N-Am1 (Ringer): This is the "original" Ringer's recipe! No direct reference to the species used was found in any of the four Ringer papers (1882-1885), but A14 refers to the "English Frog" in a footnote.

N-Am2 (Clark): The author also utilized Rana esculenta and Xenopus laevis. The recipe listed in A1 as "Amphibian Regular" is this one (Am-2) plus NaH2PO4 added to 0.09mM. The recipe cited as "Glades" in A1 is Am-2 plus NaH2PO4 added to 0.09mM and glucose added to 10.09mM. The recipe cited as "Clark's" in A1 is not the same as Am-2; it is Am-2 with 1.19mM NaHCO3 (instead of the original 2.4mM), plus NaH2PO4 added to 0.09mM.

N-Am2-a (Boyle..): Described in A1 as "recommended by Dr. Szent-Gyorgyi" and almost identical to the non-protein components of Amphibian plasma; adopted in A1 as the "stock" Amphibian Ringer's.
N-Am3 (Sullivan): For perfusion, 2g polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) or albumin was added per 100ml. The Amphiuma species is presumed to be tridactylum, though not stated in the paper.

NOTES, Mammals (source = A1 if not otherwise stated)

N-Ma1 (Krebs..): Described in A1 as "recommended by Dr. Szent-Gyorgyi" and almost identical to the non-protein components of Mammalian plasma; adopted in A1 as the "stock" Mammalian Ringer's.

N-Ma2 (Locke..): Described in A1 as the "old, standard formula for work on mammalian hearts". The original paper does not state what species of rabbit was used.

N-Ma2-a (Tyrode): Recipe from A1, which cites Gellhorn, E. 1931. p74 in Lehrbuch der Allgem. Physiol. Theime, Leipzig. However, the original paper is C-Ma2-a. Described in A1 as "better for gut muscle" than Locke's Ringer's (N-Ma2).

N-Ma3 (Bouskela..): A HEPES-buffered version is also given in C-Ma3 .