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MBL Catalyst, Volume 3, Number 2, Fall 2008

Full magazine (PDF format)

Supplemental Material

  • Cover:
    In Brainbow transgenic mice, neurons are fluorescently labeled in up to 160 different colors (J. Lichtman) Inset photo: Osamu Shimomura (T. Kleindinst).
  • Inside front cover:
    Gary Borisy (T. Kleindinst); Aequorea (O. Shimomura)
  • Table of Contents page:
    Meiosis in crane fly spermatocytes (R. Oldenbourg); Aequorea illustrations (T. Clark); GFP nerve ganglion (S. Inoué); GFP in test tube (T. Kleindinst)
  • Pp. 2 – 3:
    Photos: clockwise from top: an efflorescence of squid (R. Fink); Louie Kerr, MBL's Central Microscopy Facility manager, and Physiology Course student Paul Miller (T. Kleindinst); innervation of an ascidian oral siphon (S. Tiozzo); ascidian’s cerebral ganglion (S. Tiozzo); filamentous cyanobacteria (J. Saenz); Drosophila mitotic spindles (G. Goshima, N. Stuurman, R. Wollman, MBL Physiology Course students); various developmental stages of foraminifer (J.C. Weber); microtubules and DNS staining in the 2 to 4 cell division stage of sea urchin embryos (L. Henson); Botrylloides metamorphosed (J. Gray); diatom Arachnoidiscus
    (M. Shribak). Center: aster (M. Shribak)
  • Pp. 4 – 5
    Aequorea (O. Shimomura); Osamu Shimomura with Aequorea (T. Kleindinst); Osamu Shimomura crushing Cyrpidina (T. Kleindinst)
  • Pp. 6 – 7
    • Clockwise, left to right: Adélie penguins, one of many local species that depend on sea ice to survive and complete their life cycle, are being displaced near Palmer Station by species that are not ice-dependent (chinstrap and gentoo penguins) ( H. Ducklow)
    • The sea walnut, Mnemiopsis leidyi, can quickly repair itself - a few minutes to a few hours depending on the injury - without scarring. (A. Moss)
    • The Farm Bill promotes the production of "advanced biofuels" made from the inedible parts of corn and other cellulosic plant matter. (U.S. Geological Survey)
    • A laboratory culture of the bdelloid rotifer Adineta vaga. Rotifers may be able to incorporate DNA from other species into their genomes during the desiccation and rehydration phases of their life cycle. (Eugene Gladyshev)
    • Closeup of the head of a male Gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta. Toadfish are close relatives of midshipman (same family of teleost fish) that also vocalizes to attract females to his nest (there is no evidence of two male morphs in this species). Gulf toadfish build their nests in shallow waters along the southeastern and Gulf coasts of the United States.
  • Pp. 8 – 9
    • Clockwise, starting at top left: Innovators in microscopy who investigate cell division at the MBL include Shinya Inoué (foreground) and (left to right, by row) Ted Salmon, Greenfield (“Kip”) Sluder, James LaFountain, Ron Vale, Gary Borisy, Michael Shribak, Jason Swedlow, Conly Rieder, Rudolf Oldenbourg, Tim Mitchison, and Gaudenz Danuser (T. Kleindinst)
    • Images of mitotic spindles (left to right): in clam Acila; in scallop embryo; in clam embryo; meiotic spindle in scallop embryo (G. von Dassow)
    • Polarized fluorescence of rotated GPF crystals (S. Inoué and O. Shimomura)
    • Shinya Inoué at microscope (T. Kleindinst)
    • Series of four stills from Shinya Inoué’s 1951 movie of dividing Easter lily pollen mother cells (S. Inoué)
  • Pp. 10 – 11
    Left to right: A motor nerve innervating ear muscle in a mouse (J. Lichtman); GFP nerve ganglion (S. Inoué); mouse brainstem (J. Lichtman)
  • Pp. 12 - 13
    Clockwise, left to right: Greenfield (“Kip”) Sluder (T. Kleindinst); AQLM student at scope (T. Kleindinst); Visualization of the changes in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) organization during the cell cycle of the Drosophila embryo (R. Rikhy and J. Lippincott-Schwartz)
  • p. 14
    • Loeb Laboratory (B. Liles)
    • Zoe Cardon exploring how sagebrush plants' roots move water up and down in the soil column, a phenomenon that strongly influences hydrology of the region and activity of soil microbes around the plant roots. (A. Dolan)
    • Melosira (D. Patterson; provided by micro*scope; http://microscope.mbl.edu)
  • p. 15
    • Aequorea illustrations (T. Clark)
    • GFP crystals (S. Inoué)
    • Aequorea (O. Shimomura); GFP in test tube (T. Kleindinst)
  • p. 16
    Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz (J. Lippincott-Schwartz)
  • p. 17
    From E.B. Wilson (1892) “The Cell-Lineage of Nereis. A Contribution to the Cytogeny of the Annelid Body,” J. Morphology VI: 361-480. An original copy of this issue of the journal, which was edited by Charles O. Whitman, the first director of the MBL, is stored with “Selected Reprints of Edmund B. Wilson” in the MBLWHOI Library.
  • Back page
    Haitians harvesting fish stocks (N. Warren); MBL’s Marine Resources department staff collecting marine models (P. Wilmot); starfish (P. Wilmot)

A Light in the Darkness

  • Pieribone, V., and Gruber, D.F. (2006). Aglow in the Dark: The Revolutionary Science of Biofluorescence. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Mass.
  • Shimomura, O. (1995). A short story of aequorin. Biol. Bull. 189: 1-5.
  • Shimomura, O. (2005). The discovery of aequorin and green fluorescent protein. J. Microscopy 217: 3-15.
  • Shimomura, O., Goto, T., and Hirata, Y. (1957). Crystalline Cypridina luciferin. Bull. Chem. Soc. Japan 30: 929-933.
  • Shimomura, O., Johnson, F.H., and Saiga, Y. (1962). Extraction, purification and properties of aequorin, a bioluminescent protein from the luminous hydromedusan Aequorea. J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 59: 223-240.

News & Notes

The Message in the Movement

Dell, K.R., and Vale, R.D. (2004). A tribute to Shinya Inoué and innovation in light microscopy. J. Cell Biol. 165: 21-25.

Inoué, S. (1952). Effect of temperature on the birefringence of the mitotic spindle. Biol. Bull. 103: 316.

Inoué, S. (1952). The effect of colchicine on the microscopic and submicroscopic structure of the mitotic spindle. Exp. Cell. Res. Suppl. 2: 305-18.

Inoué, S. (1953). Polarization optical studies of the mitotic spindle. I. The demonstration of spindle fibers in living cells. Chromosoma 5: 487-500.

Inoué, S. (1981). Video image processing greatly enhances contrast, quality, and speed in polarization-based microscopy. J. Cell Biol. 89: 346-356.

Inoué, S. (2008). Microtubule Dynamics in Cell Division: Exploring Living Cells with Polarized Light Microscopy. Ann. Rev. Cell Devel. Biol. 24: 1-28.

Inoué, S., and Salmon, E.D. (1995). Force generation by assembly/disassembly in mitosis and related movements. Mol. Biol. Cell. 9:1603-07.

Inoué, S., and Sato, H. (1967). Cell motility by labile association of molecules. J. Gen. Physiol. 50: 259-92.

Inoué, S., and Spring, K. (1997). Video Microscopy: The Fundamentals. Plenum Press, New York.

Mitchison, T.J., and Kirschner, M. (1984). Dynamic instability of microtubule growth. Nature 312: 237-42.

Mitchison, T.J., and Salmon, E.D. (2001). Mitosis: a history of cell division. Nat. Cell Biol. 3: E17-21.

Rieder, C.L. and A. Khodjakov (2003). Mitosis through the microscope: Advances in seeing inside live dividing cells. Science 300: 91-96.

Brain Power

Lichtman, J., Livet, J., and Sanes, J.R. (2008). A technicolour approach to the connectome. Nat. Rev. Neuro. 9: 417-422.

Livet, J., et al. (2007). Transgenic strategies for combinatorial expression of fluorescent proteins in the nervous system. Nature 450: 56-62.

Micheva, K.D., and Smith, S. (2007) Array Tomography: A New Tool for Imaging the Molecular Architecture and Ultrastructure of Neural Circuits. Neuron 55: 25-36.

Ruthazer, E.S., and Cline, H.T. (2004) Time-lapse imaging of CNS neuron development in vivo. In Imaging: A Laboratory Manual (eds. R. Yuste, F. Lani and A. Konnerth), Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, NY.

The Proving Grounds

From Jellyfish to Post-Genomics

Chalfie, M., et al (1994). Green fluorescent protein as a marker for gene expression. Science 263: 802-805.

Prasher, D.C., et al (1992). Primary structure of the Aequorea victoria green-fluorescent protein. Gene 111: 229-233.

Shimomura, O., Johnson, F.H., and Saiga, Y. (1962). Extraction, purification and properties of aequorin, a bioluminescent protein from the luminous hydromedusan Aequorea. J. Cell. Comp. Physiol. 59: 223-240.

Tsien, R. (1998). The green fluorescent protein. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 67: 509-544.

Scaling the Super-Resolution Peak

Betzig E., et al. (2006). Imaging Intracellular Fluorescent Proteins at Nanometer Resolution. Science 313: 1642-1645.

Lippincott-Schwartz, J., Altan-Bonnet, N.A., and Patterson, G.H. (2003). Photobleaching and photoactivation: following protein dynamics in living cells. Nat. Cell Biol. 5 (Suppl.): S7-S14.

Lippincott-Schwartz, J., et al. (2003). Development and use of fluorescent protein markers in living cells. Science 300: 87-91.

Shroff, H., Galbraith, C.G., Galbraith, J.A., and Betzig, E. (2008). Live-cell photoactivated localization microscopy of nanoscale adhesion dynamics. Nature Methods 5: 417-423.


Wilson, E.B. (1982). The Cell-Lineage of Nereis. A Contribution to the Cytogeny of the Annelid Body. J. Morph. VI: 361-480.