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women of science
Franz and Sally Schrader and Mary R. Huettner at Gansett Beach, c. 1923. They are sitting on a piece of the wrecked hull of the Wanderer, a former whaling ship that crashed on the rocks at Cuttyhunk in 1921.
Schrader marriage
The cover page from a collection of humorous writings contributed by colleagues of the Schraders at Columbia University and the MBL.
Schrader lab
Franz and Sally Schrader in their laboratory at Columbia University, c. 1922.
Sally Schrader
Sally Hughes Schrader

Sally P. Hughes was born in 1895 in Hubbard, Oregon and spent her early years on the west coast. After completing her undergraduate studies, she was accepted at Columbia University, where she majored in protozoology, and obtained her M.A. there in 1922. A student of Gary N. Calkins, James McGregor, and Edmund Beecher Wilson, she later earned her Ph.D. at Columbia in 1924.

She embarked on a successful teaching career at Bryn Mawr College and later at Columbia University, where, as Professor of Zoology, she was the head of the Biology Department at Barnard College. Although she was known as an enthusiastic teacher, she also gained recognition for her scientific research. She performed the first complete dissection of the cranial nerves of the dogfish (Squalus icanthias) and made studies of haploidy, parthenogenesis, hermaphroditism, and the life cycle of insects.

She came to Woods Hole in the summer of 1918 as a student from Grinnell College and was enrolled in the embryology course at the MBL. In 1922, she was listed as an instructor at Bryn Mawr and was a student in the MBLÍs protozoology course. In 1925, she returned to the MBL as an Independent Investigator in Zoology and continued in this capacity for several years. She later became a Life Member of the MBL Corporation.

In 1920, she married Franz Schrader, the eminent cytologist and geneticist. An excellent athlete, she enjoyed swimming, racing, and canoeing, and with her husband, partook of the quieter leisure activities of camping and fishing. While at Woods Hole, the Schraders kept a catboat, a broad-beamed sailboat similar to the Chesapeake oyster boat, and their bountiful catches were invariably shared with the people at the MBL.

A witty and independent spirit, Sally Hughes Schrader was deeply dedicated to teaching and to scientific research and earned from her scientific contemporaries respect and appreciation for her abilities and accomplishments.