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MBL Catalyst, Volume 4, Number 1, Spring 2009
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A boy in LAcul, Haiti, where MBL experts are teaching sustainable methods of freshwater-fish farming to give villagers a reliable source of protein and much-needed income. (B. Mebane)
- Inside front cover
MBL Director and CEO Gary G. Borisy (E. Armstrong)
- Table of Contents page
Top: Dividing Xenopus XL-177 cell (tubulin shown in green, DNA in blue) (C. Walczak)
Infant (E. Hebert)
Chromatophores (large brown, red, and yellow structures) and iridophores (pink iridescent splotches) in squid Loligo pealeii (L. Mäthger)
Cancer cell (K. Rajalingam)
- Pp. 2-3
p. 2 Background photo of woman in lab (T. Kleindinst)
p. 3 Background photo of Earth (NOAA)
Breast cancer cell (National Cancer Institute)
Injection (Centers for Disease Control)
Aequorea (O. Shimomura)
Giardia lamblia trophozoite. Scanning electron micrograph, false color. (J. Mancuso)
Infant (G. Lyons)
- Pp. 4-5
Development of the centrifuged eggs of Arbacia (T.H. Morgan)
Infant (E. Hebert)
Sea urchin (MBLWHOI Library collection)
Sheldon Segal (E. Armstrong)
- Pp. 6-7
Gut bacteria (PLoS Biology)
Drug injection (CDC)
MBL Semester in Environmental Science student Angela Vincent (Grinnell College) and MBL associate scientist Joseph Vallino collect groundwater from wells sampling the NITREX barrier. (K. Lucey)
A 3-D reconstruction of a "thick" (16 µm) epididymis section stained for COX1 (red), ZO1 (green) and V-ATPase (blue). This picture shows numerous basal cells reaching out toward the lumen. (S. Breton)
Forest burning (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service)
- Pp. 8-9
Background: Iridophores in squid are highly angle dependent. This image shows the same iridophore splotches viewed at normal (red) and oblique (blue) viewing angles. (L. Mäthger)
Inset, top: Chromatophores (large brown, red, and yellow structures) and iridophores (pink iridescent splotches) in squid Loligo pealeii (L. Mäthger)
Inset, bottom: Roger Hanlon and Lydia Mäthger with cuttlefish (T. Kleindinst)
- Pp. 10-11
Arm and pipette (Lenor/Dreamstime.com)
Cancer cell (K. Rajalingam)
Dividing Xenopus XL-177 cell (tubulin shown in green, DNA in blue) (C. Walczak)
Tim Mitchison (courtesy of Physiology course)
- Pp. 12-13
Bill Mebane (T. Kleindinst)
Children in LAcul, Haiti, at one of the aquaculture ponds where MBL scientists are showing residents how to sustainably raise tilapia (B. Mebane)
Weighing the tilapia harvested from an aquaculture pond in LAcul, Haiti (B. Mebane)
The tilapia harvest from an aquaculture pond in LAcul, Haiti (B. Mebane)
- P. 14
Globe (NASA SeaWiFs Project)
Starfish (E. Armstrong)
MBL Science Journalism fellows collecting invertebrates near Toolik Lake field station in arctic Alaska (C. Neill)
- P. 15
Background: Cross-section of mouse intestines showing colonizing bacteria (red) located close to the nuclei of mouse intestinal epithelial cells (large blue dots). Combinatorial imaging will help determine which bacteria live near the host tissue and have a greater chance of influencing the host cells' biology. (C. Rieken)
Combinatorial Imaging Group (E. Armstrong)
- P. 16
Joshua Hamilton (T. Kleindinst)
- P. 17
Jack Levin, then of The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, collects the blue blood of the horseshoe crab, Limulus, in the MBLs Lillie Laboratory in 1977. (Courtesy of J. Levin)
- Back page
Loligo pealii (R. T. Hanlon)
Introduction (Pp. 2-3):
Evans, T., Hunt, T., and Youngblom, J. (1982) On the role of maternal mRNA in sea urchins: studies of a protein which appears to be destroyed at a particular point during each cell division cycle. Biol. Bull. 163: 372.
Yu, Z., et al. (2008) A cyclin D1/microRNA 17/20 regulatory feedback loop in control of breast cancer cell proliferation. J. Cell. Biol. 182: 509-517.
Liu, L., R. Oldenbourg, J.R. Trimarchi, and D.L. Keefe (2000) A reliable, noninvasive technique for spindle imaging and enucleation of mammalian oocytes. Nature Biotech. 18: 223-225.
Shribak, M. and R. Oldenbourg (2003) Techniques for fast and sensitive measurements of two-dimensional birefringence distributions. Appl. Opt. 42: 3009-17.
Pethig, R., et al. (2008) Dielectrophoretic assembly of insulinoma cells and fluorescent nanosensors into three-dimensional pseudo-islet constructs. IET Nanobiotech. 2: 31-38.
Morrison, H. et al. (2007) Genomic minimalism in the early diverging intestinal parasite Giardia lamblia. Science 317: 1921-1926.
Shimomura, O. (2005) The discovery of aequorin and green fluorescent protein. J. Microscopy 217: 3-15.
On Fertile Ground
Segal, S.J. Under the Banyan Treea Population Scientist's Odyssey. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2003 (see pp. 134-135).
Sea Urchin Genome Sequencing Consortium (2006) The Genome of the Sea Urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Science 314: 941-952.
News & Notes
Antibiotics Can Cause Pervasive, Persistent Changes to the Microbial Community in the Human Gut, MBL and Stanford Scientists Report : http://www.mbl.edu/news/press_releases/2008/2008_pr_11_18.html
Dethlefsen, L. et al. (2008) The pervasive effects of an antibiotic on the human gut microbiota, as revealed by deep 16S rRNA sequencing. PLoS Biology 6, e280 doi:10.1371/ journal.pbio.0060280.
Thinking it Through: Scientists Call For Policy to Guide Biofuels Industry Toward Sustainable Practices : http://www.mbl.edu/news/press_releases/2008/2008_pr_10_02.html
Robertson, G. Philip et al. (2008) Sustainable Biofuels Redux. Science 322: 49-50.
Database for New Tropical-Disease Drugs is a Hit
Agüero, F., et al. (2008) Genomic-scale prioritization of drug targets: the TDR Targets database. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery 7, doi: 10.1038/nrd2684.
Shum, W. W.C. et al. (2008) Transepithelial Projections from Basal
Cells Are Luminal Sensors in Pseudostratified Epithelia. Cell 135: 11081117.
Sutherland, R. et al. (2008) Cephalopod coloration model. I. Squid chromatophores and iridophores. J. Opt. Soc. America 25: 588-599.
Sutherland, R. et al. (2008) Cephalopod coloration model. II. Multiple layer skin effects. J. Opt. Soc. America 25: 2044-2054.
Mäthger, L.M. and Hanlon, R.T (2007) Malleable skin coloration in cephalopods: selective reflectance, transmission and absorbance of light by chromatophores and iridophores. Cell and Tissue Research 329: 179-186.
Ready, Aim: Cancer
Shi, J., J.D. Orth and T. Mitchison (2008) Cell Type Variation in Responses to Antimitotic Drugs that Target Microtubules and Kinesin-5. Cancer Res. 68: 3269-3276.
An Application Gels
Bang, F.B. and J.L. Frost (1953) The toxic effect of a marine bacterium on Limulus and the formation of blood clots. Biol. Bull. 105: 361-362.
Bang, F.B. (1956) A bacterial disease of Limulus polyphemus. Bull. Hopkins Hosp., 98: 325-
Levin, J. and Bang, F. B. (1964) The role of endotoxin in the extracellular coagulation of Limulus blood. Bull. Johns Hopkins Hosp. 115: 265274.
Levin, J. and Bang, F.B. (1968) Clottable protein in Limulus: Its localization and kinetics of its coagulation by endotoxin. Thromb Diath Haemorrh 19:186-
Levin, J. et al. (1972) Gram-negative sepsis: detection of endotoxemia with the limulus test. With studies of associated changes in blood coagulation, serum lipids, and complement. Ann. Intern. Med. 76 (1):17.